Posts for tag: chiropractic modesto ca
The wrist is the name usually given to the eight carpal bones (the lunate, scaphoid, triquetrum, pisiform, trapezium, capitate, hamate and trapezoid carpals) that form the part of the hand closest to the forearm, and the joints that they form with each other and the bones of the forearm and hand. The radiocarpal joint connects the hand to the forearm and involves the distal end (furthest from the body) of the radius, the articular disc and eight bones of the wrist itself. The scaphoid, lunate, pisiform and triquetrum carpals articulate (connect) directly with the radius, whereas the other carpal bones are slightly more distal to (further from) the wrist joint. The proximal (closest to the body) parts of the five metacarpals are often included as anatomical components of the wrist.
As we all know from experience, a wide range of movement is possible at the wrist, and the radiocarpal joint allows for flexion (bending) extension (straightening), some hyperextension (bending back) abduction (movement away from the body) adduction (movement towards the body) and circumduction (circular movement of the hand from the wrist).
Although the ulna is larger than the radius, it tapers towards the wrist and becomes narrower. Here, at the end of the forearm, the head of the radius connects with the radial notch of the ulna to form the radioulnar joint. This is separated from the radiocarpal joint by the articular disc and allows for supination and pronation movements of the hand (rotating the palm of the hand to face-up and face-down positions respectively). Both the radiocarpal and radioulnar joints are synovial joints, the radiocarpal being a condyloid (or ellipsoid) joint whereas the radioulnar is a pivot joint.
The midcarpal joint occurs between the carpals most proximal to the wrist and those more distal. Between the carpal bones in each row (proximal or distal) are a series of intercarpal joints. These are a combination of synovial planar (sliding) and saddle joints, which allow a degree of movement in the lower hand, including flexion (bending toward the palm) and extension (straightening toward the back of the hand).
Each bone of the wrist is connected to its neighbors by one or more ligaments. Since there are a total of fifteen bones comprising the various wrist joints (the radius, ulna, eight carpals and five metacarpals), this gives rise to a complex arrangement of wrist ligaments. Two of the largest of these are the medial (ulnar) collateral ligament and lateral (radial) collateral ligament. The lateral collateral ligament connects the radius across the wrist to the scaphoid carpal, and the medial collateral ligament attaches the end of ulna to the triquetrum and pisiform carpals.
Anatomy of the Sacroiliac Joint
The sacroiliac joint is a planar (sliding) synovial joint in the bony pelvis, formed by the meeting of the sacrum (at the base of the spine) and upper part of the hip (ilium). Two such joints are found in the human body on either side of the sacrum and they move as a unit, such that movement on one side will produce movement on the other side. The bones connect at their respective auricular surfaces on the outside of the sacrum and inside of the ilium, with a raised area of bone known as the sacral tzygoteuberosity that is connected to the hip bones. The alignment of bones against each other provides support for the joint, and this is greatly enhanced by the presence of several especially strong ligaments.
Although allowing for some degree of tilting movement (between approximately 2 and 18 degrees), the primary role of the sacroiliac joint is to support the weight of the spinal column and upper torso and act as a spinal shock absorber. Anything other than anterior to posterior (back and forth) movement is prohibited by the presence of strong ligaments between the sacrum and ilium, but sacral flexion (bending) and extension (straightening) is possible. The sacrum and ilium may also tilt in opposing directions, as occurs during walking.
The space between the sacrum and ilium tends to become smaller with age, restricting what motion there is, with the bones even occasionally fusing together. Joint flexibility is, however, enhanced in pregnancy as a result of elevated levels of the hormone relaxin, which loosens the ligaments of the pelvis in preparation for childbirth.
The auricular (‘ear shaped’) surfaces of the sacrum and ilium are rough and lined with cartilage. The sacral auricular surface supports hyaline cartilage, whereas fibrocartilage lines the iliac auricular surface. Only the lower half of the joint has a synovial cavity, with the upper half being held in place by the interosseous ligaments and the thick posterior and thinner anterior sacroiliac ligaments. The interosseous ligaments are very strong, and the bone will often fracture before these will tear. Thick posterior and thinner anterior sacroiliac ligaments also support the sacroiliac joint, and the sacrospinous and sacrotuberous ligaments further connect the sacrum to the hip bone. The entire joint is contained and supported by a fibrous articular capsule.
Cervical facet syndrome (CFS) is a form of osteoarthritis characterized by a structural deterioration of the vertebrae and joints of the neck. These vertebrae are connected to the spine and supported by a fluid-encapsulated, cartilage-coated hinge mechanism called a facet joint; this joint both stabilizes the spine and allows free movement of the neck and head. Like other joints, it experiences constant, repetitive motion, and can become worn or torn.
As the result of aging (and sometimes the result of trauma or injury such as whiplash), the cartilage that surrounds the facet joint can become worn, causing bone-to-bone contact. The facet joint then becomes inflamed, and may cause pain, stiffness, or soreness, both at the location of the joint and in other areas of the body. This area of the cervical spine is home to a number of pain generators, including the facet joint itself, the intervertebral discs, and the ligaments and muscles that support them. CFS can thus result in a range of symptoms including pain or tenderness near the joint itself, limited mobility of the neck and head, a chronically sore or stiff neck, and other symptoms that radiate to the shoulders, arms, upper back and upper legs. Some patients report pain that seems to originate in the back of the head, but which then radiates over the top of the head, sometimes extending into the region of the eyes and ears.
The pain of cervical facet syndrome is most commonly described as a dull, deep ache, which is often experienced as being worse in the mornings, because the inflammation and stiffness increases while they are asleep. As they begin to move around the pain may subside, but if their work or lifestyle requires them to sit at a desk all day, that may cause the pain to recur. Many patients report that the pain increases when they turn their heads, such as when they are trying to look behind them. The inflammation caused by CFS can also manifest as muscle spasms.
The majority of medical practitioners recommend initially treating cervical facet syndrome as conservatively and non-invasively as possible. Heat or ice packs and anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen can help. Chiropractic manipulation may be able to relieve many of the structural causes of CFS, and is often combined with deep tissue massage, electro-stimulation, and stretching exercises to relax affected muscles in the area, stimulating healing blood flow to the region, and increasing mobility. Recommendations for diet or lifestyle changes (including posture correction) can also help to promote faster healing and prevent recurrence of the syndrome and its distress.